Friday, February 7, 2020
Compare ICD-9 to ICD-10 - Assignment Example There are instances where new codes have been allocated to different chapters, a factor that hinders location of all available codes. In contrast, the new edition is arranged in such a manner that character length is increased, which highly extends the quantity of available codes (Lazakidou, 2006). Its structure, flexibility, and capacity are up-to-date to capture the medical experience and technological advances. The content conveyed by the two codes is dissimilar. ICD-9 codes contain at least 3-5 digits that begin with either a letter or a number. ICD-10 codes comprise of seven digits. Some similarities can be identified in the two systems. Their organization tends to match, where both use a decimal after three characters. This means that anyone who is able to code ICD-9-CM qualifies to make a transition coding to ICD-10-CM. According to Lazakidou, the rules, conventions, and guidelines are also alike. The first three digits match with the ICD-9 code, with the third digit being followed by a decimal point. However, the digits after the decimal have a particular meaning. For instance, in surgical and medical guidelines, the digits that come later are specific to a surgical approach, body part, and other requirements for billing. Correspondingly, the ICD-10 codes follow suit with seven digits to represent diagnosis codes. The transition procedure from ICD-9 to ICD-10 will entail a conversion based on a forward and backward GEMs map offered by the CMS. There will be a process with one cluster being converted at a time to safeguard the clinical aim of the classification. Alternatively, codes may be transited through using consistent probability distribution, and the converted data be audited to validate the process (Lazakidou, 2006). ICD-9 and ICD-10 differ in sequencing, depending on the circumstances surrounding the encounter. For instance, it is notable that ICD-10 sequencing instructions for anemia
Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Cleft Lip and Palate and its Effect on Speech Essay Introduction on Speech and Phonetics Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Phonetics and phonology are concerned with speech Ã¢â¬â with the ways in which human produce and hear speech. Talking and listening to each other are so much part of normal life that they often seem unremarkable. Yet, as in any scientific field, the curious investigator finds rich complexity beneath the surface. Even the simplest of conversations Ã¢â¬â an exchange of short greetings, for example Ã¢â¬â presupposes that the speaker and hearer make sense to each other and understand each other. Their ability to communicate in this way depends in turn on proper bodily functioning (of brain, lungs, larynx, ears and so on), on recognizing each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s pronunciation a bewildering jumble of unpronounceable and unintelligible noise only underlines the extent of our organization and control of talking and listening within particular social and linguistic conventions. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Once we make a decision to start with an examination of speech, we can come up to it on a range of steps. At one step, speech is an issue of anatomy and physiology where we can examine the organs of speech such as tongue and larynx and their role in the creation of speech. Taking another perspective, we can focus on the speech sounds produced by these organs Ã¢â¬â the units that we commonly try to identify by letters such as a Ã¢â¬Ëb-soundÃ¢â¬â¢ or an Ã¢â¬Ëm-soundÃ¢â¬â¢. But speech is transmitted as sound waves themselves. Taking yet another approach, the term Ã¢â¬ËsoundsÃ¢â¬â¢ is a prompt that speech is proposed to be heard or supposed that it is then probable to concentrate on the manner in which a listener understands and process a sound wave (Clark, Yallop, Fletcher, 2006). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Phonetics is the study of the sounds of natural language. The use of sounds in speech involves three distinct phases: 1) the production of sounds by the speaker, 2) the transmission of sounds between the speaker and the hearer, and 3) the reception of the sounds by the hearer. Each of these phases especially 1) and 3), which clearly involve the human brain, is an extremely complicated process, each needs to be understood if we wish to have full understanding of the workings of human speech, and each requires its own methods of study. The science of phonetics thus consists of three main branches, each devoted to the study of one of the phases of speech. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Articulatory phonetics is the study of the way in which speech sounds are produced or Ã¢â¬ËarticulatedÃ¢â¬â¢ by the speaker. It includes a description of the organs of speech, such as the vocal cords, the tongue and the palate, and how they are used to produce sounds. The description of speech in articulatory terms has a long history, going back to ancient times, and is still considered the most useful type of description for language teaching purposes. Acoustic phonetics is the study of the transmission of speech sounds through the air in the form of air waves. Precise studies of the transmission stage of speech rely heavily on electronic equipment which has only been available since the 1930s and 1940s, but in the relatively short space of time since then great strides have been made in our understanding of the transmission of speech sounds. Acoustic phonetics is not as important in pronunciation teaching as articulatory phonetics, but it can be of valuable assistance in certain areas such as the description of vowel sounds or intonations, which are not easily described in articulatory terms. Auditory phonetics, finally, studies the processes in the ear, auditory nerve and brain which lead to the perception of sounds by the hearer (Hall, 2003). Organs of Speech Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The first essential for the student of Phonetics is to have a clear idea of the structure and functions of the various parts of the organs of speech. The term organs of speech is used to refer to parts of the body in the larynx and the vocal tract that are involved in the production of speech. It is a misleading term in that it suggests that we have special physical organs for speaking. This is not so: all our so-called Ã¢â¬Ëorgans of speechÃ¢â¬â¢ have primary biological functions relating to our respiratory system and the processing of food (Gussenhoven Jacobs, 1998). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The organs of speech are all bodily structure composed of a variety of tissue types (such as bone, cartilage and skin) which are specific to their biological (rather than linguistic) function. Bodily organs are generally grouped into systems which have particular functions in the life of the organism. These include the respiratory system, the digestive system, and the reproductive system and so on. While it can be argued that the organs of speech form a system, they do not contribute to life support in the same way as other systems, and they are generally not thought of as performing their primary biological function when they are used in speech production (Clark et al., 2006). Nature of Speech Defects Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Speech is a motor act that requires little concentration once it is learned. The energy source for speech is air. The diaphragm is the primary muscle of respiration and air is inhaled and exhaled through the vocal tract, the diaphragm contracts and flattens; this enlarges the thoracic cavity by displacing the abdominal contents downward and expanding the thoracic volume. The external intercostals assist the diaphragm in increasing the size of the thoracic capacity. If these movements are not coordinated, the supply and control of air may be reduced. Lack of coordination occurs during inhalation when the abdominal muscles contract simultaneously with the diaphragm and push the abdominal contents upward. This upward movement decreases the size of the thoracic cavity, which reduced the amount of air available for the production of speech. Restriction of the air supply may lead to reduced loudness, illogical breath groups, limited pitch range, decreased intelligibility and increased expiratory effort. Respiration for speech should be effortless and coordinated with phonation and resonation. Adduction of the vocal folds in a stream of air produces phonation. During quiet respiration, the vocal folds are abducted to an intermediate position by the poster cricoarytenoid muscles. Changes in the vibration pattern may result in altered voice quality, pitch, and loudness and decreased speech intelligibility Communication is a closed loop system. When individuals speak, others hear them and respond to their speech. In addition, individuals hear themselves speak and monitor their speech production. If speech production does not match the specific intention, then speech os modified. When speakers have a speech disorder, they may compensate for the impaired speech production by changing their respiration, phonation, and articulation. If this compensation is carried out in an effortful way, the compensation may be counterproductive and may worsen the symptoms (Brin, Comella, Jankovic, 2004). Speech Assessments Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Speech assessments proper are established from the age of 4 years and allow objective evaluation to take place over a long period. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The articulation of phonemes is routinely evaluated during sessions of repetition as well as free speech. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The speech-language pathologist (SLP) will also evaluate the childÃ¢â¬â¢s speech production and some of the aspects of phonology. The SLP will ask the child to say various syllables or words and evaluate the Ã¢â¬Å"correctnessÃ¢â¬ of what the child says. The SLP is trained to listen and compare all aspects of speech to a criterion of correct production. The SLP will comment on the childÃ¢â¬â¢s voice quality. Does the childÃ¢â¬â¢s voice sound like a typical childÃ¢â¬â¢s should at that age? Is it too high-pitched, strained, or too nasal? The SLP will comment on fluency, or the relative ease with which the child talks. Does the child stutter or stammer? The SLP will also perform oral-motor exam. In this exam, the SLP asks the child to do some movements incorporating his tongue, lips, teeth, cheeks, soft palate, and jaw. These movements are checked to see if the child has any weakness or coordination problems with the muscles and structures of the mouth that would influence the childÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to produce the speech sounds correctly. The SLP will also do an articulation test. In this test the SLP asks the child to say a group of syllables or words that contain all the sounds of English. The SLP makes a judgment about how correctly the child produced the sound. Sometimes the SLP marks whether the error was an omission (the child did not say the sound at all), a substitution (the child substituted one sound for another; for example the child said Ã¢â¬Å"pishÃ¢â¬ instead of Ã¢â¬Å"fishÃ¢â¬ ), or a distortion (the child said a sound that was not the correct speech sound and did not sound like another sound). The SLP will list which sounds were produced incorrectly and make suggestions for follow-up therapy (Easterbrooks Estes, 2007). Cleft Lip and Palate Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is the term applied to a fissure in the roof of the mouth (palate) and/or the lip which is present at birth. It is found in varying degrees of severity in about 1 in 700 children. Modern plastic surgery can greatly improve the appearance of the baby and often further cosmetic surgery later will not be necessary. The parent of the child who has cleft lip and/or palate will be given detailed advice specific to his case. In general the team of specialists involved are the pediatrician, plastic surgeon, dentist or orthodontic specialist, and speech therapist (Havard, 1990). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The deficiencies associated with cleft palate depend on the location of the defect in the palate. In the normal palate, the tensor veli palatine and levator palatine muscles within the soft palate insert into an aponeurosis at the midline raphe. In the cleft palate, the muscle fibers follow the medial margin of the cleft and insert into the medial cleft edges and the posterior edge of the lateral bony hard palate. Clefts involving the alveolus can disrupt normal dental development, eruption, and retention. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The subject of normal human facial growth is extremely complex and incompletely understood; and superimposing a cleft defect complicates an already complex process. Many children with clefts will develop collapse of the alveolar arches, midface retrusion, and resultant malocclusion as they approach their teenage years. The underlying cleft deformity itself, as well as the surgical procedures performed to correct the defect, has been implicated as possible contributing causes of these developments. Currently, controversy exists regarding the relationship between surgical procedures and maxillary growth in terms of the sequencing of the surgical procedures, the timing of the cleft repair; whether or not the cleft repair itself has an effect on maxillofacial growth, and the various surgical techniques of lip and palate repair. Of interest, it is common in nonsyndromic older children whose cleft is unrepaired to have relatively normal midfacial projection and occlusion (Bailey, Johnson, Newlands, 2006). The Effects on Speech and Resonance Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Dental problems in children with cleft lip and palate or craniofacial syndromes can be quite complex. These problems frequently require dental specialists to coordinate treatment with other health care providers in order to properly manage the patient. The specialists involved usually include a pediatric dentist, an orthodontist, an oral maxillofacial surgeon, and a prosthodontist. Together, they monitor and treat problems of the developing dentition, occlusion, and facial growth of the cleft lip/palate patient. As dental professionals reconstruct the oral environment, the speech pathologist leads to a more holistic management of the structural and functional effects of dental and speech abnormalities (Kumme, 2000). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Speech may be difficult to understand and have a muffled nasal quality, the greatest difficulty being in the pronunciation of consonants. This type of inadequate closure leads to the diagnosis of Ã¢â¬Ëcleft-palateÃ¢â¬â¢ speech, even though the palate is anatomically closed. In some cases adenoid tissue helps to close the space, so its removal by surgery or its decrease at the time of adolescence leads to further deterioration of speech. There may be associated, non-specific neurological symptoms (Baird Gordon, 1983). Cleft Palate Repair Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The reasons for cleft palate repair are improved feeding, speech development and protection of the Eustachian tube, and effect on the growth of the middle third of the face. Not enough attention was paid to the hearing in cleft palate patients and, in the earlier years, the speech was also not given important consideration. All the attention was focused on the growth of the middle third of the face but if one misses the hearing and the speech, the damage is irreversible. The timing of cleft palate repair has always been governed by geographical location. In the European Centers, the repair is delayed for considerably longer, even up to six to seven years. In the English speaking countries, the repair is done around one year of age, but why leave these repairs till so late as speech usually develops by seven months? Physiologically, it is better to repair the palate before speech starts developing, so that postoperative edema and scarring settles down, it is then better to operate in the cleft palate at four months. Traditionally, the treatment of cleft lip and palate was to repair the cleft lip and anterior palate (single layer closure) between six to 12 weeks of age and repair the palate at about 18 months (Desai, 1997). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Currently, the majority of surgeons around the world who treat many of these children prefer to operate around 3 months of age for physiological and technical reasons. A 0.25mm error in alignment in a 1-day-old- child will show noticeable 1 to 2mm malalignment by age 1 year. The cleft palate is repaired best at around age 12 months. This is a compromise. Earlier repair may be an advantage for speech, but it is a disadvantage to subsequent facial growth. Late repair has an opposite effect. It is subsequently easier today to correct an underdeveloped midface in the 10% to 20% of patients in whom it may occur, rather than trying to correct bad speech in nearly all patients so treated by late palate closure. Cleft lip and palate need no longer be devastating deformity that it was 30 years ago, if untreated by an experienced team (which needs to see at least 40 new patients a year), the child should be expected to have normal speech, a symmetrical lip with a fine scar, a nose close to normal in appearance, and a full set of well-fitting teeth. To achieve this requires good patient and parent cooperation. In most cases, further surgery will be required by age 5 years to improve the nose shape. The wearing of orthodontic braces is almost inevitable but should be limited to 1 session in early adolescence. With good psychosocial support and good parenting, such children should grow into normal well-adjusted adults. However, if the quality of the surgery is bad and repeated operations are carried out, the speech and hearing are ignored and the teeth are not treated, then a very different psychological outcome will be present. Unfortunately, this still occurs even in the most advanced countries, if children are treated by either inexperienced or inadequately trained people, or without the benefits of a team approach, or where the team does not have a big enough population load to maintain its expertise (Eder, 1995). Surgical Management of the Primary Deformity Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Lip Adhesion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If the child presents with a very wide cleft lip and a palate, it may be advantageous to Ã¢â¬Å"helpÃ¢â¬ the cleft to become narrower, thereby facilitating the surgical outcome of the cleft lip repair. Most commonly, presurgical orthopedic molding of the wide cleft palate and lip can be accomplished with a process called Ã¢â¬Å"taping.Ã¢â¬ In taping, a strip of hypoallergenic tape is applied with tension across the cleft and secured to the childÃ¢â¬â¢s cheeks. The tape is worn 24 hours a day and reapplied as needed. Taping causes molding of the bony tissues by applying gentle pressure onto the protruding bony portions of the maxilla. This simple technique can be extremely effective in reducing the width of the cleft in a nonsurgical manner. When taping a ineffective or not tolerated by the infant, a lip adhesion can be considered. The goal of a lip adhesion is to surgically convert a complete cleft lip into an incomplete cleft lip, allowing the definitive lip repair to be performed with less tension. The lip adhesion also orthopedically molds and improves the alignment of the underlying maxillary segments before definitive lip repair. Lip adhesion, if indicated, is the initial procedure and it is performed at 2 to 4 weeks of age. Definitive lip repair follows the adhesion at 4-6 months of age, which allows the scar to mature. The following criteria are used to determine if lip adhesion is needed (following failure of the taping technique): Wide, unilateral complete cleft lip and palate where closure with conventional lip repair might produce excessive tension on the incision Symmetric, wide bilateral complete cleft lip with a very protruding premaxilla Introduction of symmetry to an asymmetric bilateral cleft lip A disadvantage of lip adhesion is the introduction of scar tissue, which can occasionally interfere with the definitive lip repair; although not usually a major concern, this has prompted some surgeons to limit its use. Cleft Lip Repair If no medical contraindications exist, and a lip adhesion has not been performed previously, definite lip repair is accomplished at 8 to 12 weeks of age. In the United States most surgeons follow the Ã¢â¬Å"rule of tensÃ¢â¬ : lip repair is performed when the infant is at least 10 weeks old, weighs 10 pounds, and has hemoglobin of 10 g. Cleft Palate Restoration Historically, the exact timing of surgical closure of the cleft palate has been controversial. The desire to facilitate velopharyngeal competence for adequate speech favors relatively early closure of the palate, whereas the possible negative influence on maxillofacial growth and occlusion favors relatively late closure. Anatomic factors to consider when evaluating the palate include the extent and width of the cleft (between both the alveolar ridge and palatal shelves); position of the maxillary segments; and, in the bilateral cleft, the size, position, and degree of protrusion of the premaxilla and prolabium. In both unilateral and bilateral complete cleft palate, collapse of the lateral maxillary segment can occur following the lip repair. In some cases, preoperative orthopedics can be used to realign the maxillary segments in a more normal position before the palate is repaired. In bilateral cleft, presurgical orthopedic treatment consists of molding the nasoalveolar process with progressively modified splints, and achieving lengthening of the deficient and short columella tissue, leading to an improved nasal appearance with a single stage procedure. Other groups favor techniques that allow for intranasal correction of the deformity and malposition during the lip repair. Although insufficient space exist to describe all the commonly used techniques, the principles of bilateral lip repair are common among them, including creation of the philtrum from the prolabium and midline tubercle from the lateral vermilion. A symmetric, bilateral complete cleft lip and palate with an adequate and moderately protruding prolabium and premaxilla are used as an example. Asymmetric, bilateral cleft lips and those with a rotated premaxilla can be treated with a one or two-stage closure (using the lip adhesion as the first stage). For children with an extremely protruding premaxilla, presurgical orthopedics may be required before definitive lip repair to move the premaxilla posteriorly, either surgically or via molding with appliances or tape (Bailey et al., 2006). Clinical Alert Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Daily use of folic acid before conception decreases the risk for isolated (not associated with another genetic or congenital malformation) cleft lip or palate by up to 25%. Women of childbearing age should be encouraged to take a daily multivitamin containing folic acid until menopause or until theyÃ¢â¬â¢re no longer fertile (Kumme, 2000). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Use of a contoured speech bulb attached to the posterior of a denture to occlude the nasopharynx helps the child develop intelligible speech when a wide horseshoe defect makes surgery impossible. Special nipples and other feeding devices are available to improve feeding patterns and promote nutrition in infants with a cleft lip or palate (Eder, 1995). Conclusion Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã There is no comparable series of routine cleft lip repair in newborn within 48 hours over a long period using the same technique; it is extremely difficult to fulfill such requirements as the temptation to alter the technique or timing is so great. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Every now and then, ideas about the treatment and techniques are reported in the literature or at conferences. There was considerable opposition to, and criticism of, our work at every level, nationally as well as internationally. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã If one contemplates surgery in the newborn, then a proper team should be assembled. A surgeon should only undertake such a project if he feels it will help the child, not to impress other surgeons. A time will come when there will be fewer surgeons undertaking the treatment of these children in specialized centers. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã It is a safe procedure in the hands of dedicated clinicians and surgeons. Pediatricians and the anesthesiologist should have a final say in the decision for surgery. It is possible to do a formal repair. The scar revision in unilateral cleft is comparable to any other series. In bilateral clefts the plan is to lengthen the columella, repair the orbicularis and narrow the philtrum at the same time at about four or five years of age. It may be worth looking at the technique of palate repair. One has to find a way to achieve repair early on in order to maintain hearing and speech results while achieving excellent maxillary alignment (Desai, 1997). References: Bailey, B. J., Johnson, J. T., Newlands, S. D. (2006). Head Neck Surgeryotolaryngology (4th ed. Vol. 1). Tokyo: Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Baird, H. W., Gordon, E. C. (1983). Neurological Evaluation of Infants and Children. London: Cambridge University Press. Brin, M. F., Comella, C. L., Jankovic, J. J. (2004). Dystonia: Etiology, Clinical Features, and Treatment. New York: Lippincott Williams Wilkins. Clark, J., Yallop, C., Fletcher, J. (2006). An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology. Victoria, AU: Blackwell Publishing. Desai, S. N. (1997). Neonatal Surgery of the Cleft Lip and Palate. Hongkong: World Scientific. Easterbrooks, S. R., Estes, E. L. (2007). Helping Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students to Use Spoken Language. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc. Eder, R. A. (1995). Craniofacial Anomalies: Psychological Perspectives. New York: Springer. Gussenhoven, C., Jacobs, H. (1998). Understanding Phonology. London: Oxford University Press US. Hall, C. (2003). Modern German Pronunciation: An Introduction for Speakers of English. New York USA: Manchester University Press. Havard, C. W. H. (1990). Blacks Medical Dictionary. Savage, Maryland: Rowman Littlefield. Kumme, A. W. (2000). Cleft Palate and Craniofacial Anomalies: The Effects on Speech and Resonance. San Diego, Canada: Thomson Delmar Learning.
Monday, January 20, 2020
What influences partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ choices between clientelistic and programmatic citizen- politician linkages? In the context of democratization, many authoritarian regimes used to deploy clientelism as the main strategy for maintaining its rules (Magaloni 2006). Even in democratic institutions, parties could systematically and continuously engage in clientelism to maintain long time ruling (Piattoni 2001, Kitschelt 2007). Those hegemonic parties, once defeated in elections, faced an important choice of where to go. In various accounts, different parties went through different lines of development, producing different outcomes. Compared to ShefterÃ¢â¬â¢s (1977) analysis that the choice of clientelistic/programmatic strategies is path-dependent and fixed, this paper seeks to address the changes. By investigating two cases of former hegemonic partiesÃ¢â¬â¢ transition after electoral defeat (KMT in Taiwan and PRI in Mexico), I examined why parties made different choices, and how those different moves altered the transformation of parties. Furthermore, I offered a theoretical pattern in conclusion to differentiate different forms of transformation by two factors: resource control and ideological strength. Theoretical terms and method Two key terms in this paper need to be clarified in advance: resource control and ideological strength. By resource control, I mean particularly the financial resources parties possess and distribute for the sake of winning elections. Resources include control over central or local government budget, access to public subsidies allocation and other properties owned by parties. Levels of resource control can be measured by different offices held by the party and the partyÃ¢â¬â¢s expenditure structure. It is generally perce... ...dence direction, with President Lee Teng-hui openly announced that Taiwan and mainland China were de facto two different states. This shift had angered many pro-unification party bases, and motivated some KMT politicians to form the New Party (NP) in 1993. NP went on becoming the third largest party, and attracted many votes from traditional KMT supporters. After 2000 election, James Soong also formed his own party, People First Party (PFP), and replaced NP as the major pro-unification party in the system. As the regime cleavage has effectively faded following the successful democratization and regime change, state-identity cleavage became the major salient issue of Taiwan elections. The ambiguous position KMT took on state-identity issues made it hard to perform well among sharply divided ideological voters, and the party was at risk of losing its own Ã¢â¬Å"locationÃ¢â¬ .
Sunday, January 12, 2020
In powerful effect paradigm, media has immediate, direct influence and assumes that people are passive and absorb media content uncritically & unconditionally. That paradigm related to Frankfurt school of though. Three theories come under this paradigm; one is Mass society theory, second is Magic bullet theory and third is Critical theory. All that theories based on assumptions, that all theories shows that media has strong impact on audience and a malignant force within the society. Mass society theory: This theory is related to media and Herbert Marcuse presented this idea. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a first media theory and also known as Ã¢â¬Å"Grand TheoryÃ¢â¬ . Mass Society Theory is based on various assumptions. Following are the assumptions of Mass Society Theory: 1. The media are a malignant, cancerous force within society and must be purged or totally restructured. 2. Media have the power to reach out and directly influence the minds of average people. 3. Once peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds are corrupted by media, all sorts of bad long-term consequences result Ã¢â¬â not only bringing ruin to individual lives, but also creating social problems on a vast scale 4. Average people are vulnerable to media because they have been cut off and isolated from traditional institutions that previously protected them from manipulation. 5. The social chaos initiated by media will inevitably be resolved by establishment of a totalitarian social order. 6. Mass media inevitably debase higher forms of culture; br ing about generation decline in civilization. Read more:Ã Negative Effects of Smartphones on Youth Limited effect paradigm: Limited effect paradigm idea has been associated with Paul Lazarsfeld and his colleagues. They focused on the media effect is measureable, short term and concluded that the media played a limited role in influencing public opinion. The Ã¢â¬Å"Limited-EffectsÃ¢â¬ Model developed by Lazarsfeld and his colleagues from Columbia was highly influential in the development of media studies. The model claims the mass media has Ã¢â¬Å"limited-effectsÃ¢â¬ on audience. Comparison of Mass Society Theory Assumptions with Limited Effect Paradigm 1. The media are a malignant, cancerous force within society and must be purged or totally restructured. The Functional Analysis Theory rejected this assumption as in this theory media is a healthy organization and has a positive role within the society, and Information Flow Theory also discarded this assumption that all information does not consider valuable and 80% people heard and read soft news so the reaction and the negative effect of media is less. 2. Media have the power to reach out and directly influence the minds of average people. Two step flows discarded this assumption, this theory urges media to be less direct and less powerful effects and people are much more affected by opinion leaders rather than media. As in the Information Flow Theory most news are unnoticed by people so how it can affect average people and also in the Attitude Change Theory, society or people cannot change by media. People changed when they want change or change their self. 3. Once peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s minds are corrupted by media, all sorts of bad long-term consequences result Ã¢â¬â not only bringing ruin to individual lives, but also creating social problems on a vast scale. Attitudes Change Theory discarded this assumption that changing is a complex process and societal change is a slow process. As in a Cognitive Dissonance Theory, anything which is inconsistence that effect is less. Psychological disorder topics have a less effect on audience. One more theory rejected this assumption Functional Analysis Theory says that media role is positive in the society. 4. Average people are vulnerable to media because they have been cut off and isolated from traditional institutions that previously protected them from manipulation. Reinforcement Theory rejected this assumption it says that media act to reinforcement already held beliefs and idea. Change transpire by family, school, church etc and traditional institution are still there and have strong power to stop the individual an society by manipulation. As in Cognitive Consistency Theory people consciously or unconsciously want to see those channels or programs which are of their interest. Two Step Model also discarded this assumption by opinion leaders are attached with our institutions and in the Attitude Change Theory, in human attitude changing these three variables play focal role, 1.the Communicator, 2.communication, 3.situation. 5. The social chaos initiated by media will inevitably be resolved by establishment of a totalitarian social order. Only Innovation Diffusion Theory prop up that assumption. New idea, information introduced in the society by innovators, to spread any new idea is society has five stages by establishment of totalitarian social order the social chaos can be pave. 6. Mass media inevitably debase higher forms of culture; bring about generation decline in civilization. Cognitive Consistency rejected this assumption people always try to hold their existing beliefs so they do not allow to change their culture and values. As Reinforcement Theory, media acts to reinforce the already held and existing beliefs and ideas. It does not disturb society by creating any change. Conclusion: Mass society theory portrait media role is negative and malignant force within the society but there are many other theories which describes that media role is positive and it is a healthy institution like other social institutions. Change always comes, when people want change or try to change themselves. We negated all these assumption by these imperial studies.
Saturday, January 4, 2020
According to McDonald marketing planning is a logical sequence of events leading to the setting of marketing objectives and a formulation of plans for achieving them. (McDonald 2002 p56) The complexity of marketing planning means that when organizations embark on it, they should expect to encounter a number of organizational, attitudinal, process and cognitive problems (McDonald 2002). This essay is an attempt to outline some of those problems, however it is beyond this essay to clarify all possible barriers in implementing a marketing plan. After the potential barriers are of implementation are specified the essay will try and give possible solutions. The essay will first look at organizational constraints and then progress ontoÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦McDonald states, A major cause of failure or partial failure of marketing planning systems is the belief that once a system is designed, it can be implemented immediately. (McDonald 2002 p82) Businesses who subscribe to this view often fail to implement a timetable for their plans. This can cause them to not fully plan the planning process. The inadequate planning could cause ineffective plans as they are not tried and tested, it could also cause them not being communicated successfully. McDonald discuss how planning the planning process above all gives a resolute sense of purpose, and dedication is required, tempered by patience and a willingness to appreciate the inevitable problems which will be encountered in its implementation. (McDonald 2002 p82) Possible problems can occur in the presentation of the planning terms. Confusion between members of an organisation concerning the content of the marketing plan can be elevated due to perplex terminology and excessive amount of information and detail. Planners are usually highly skilled and use expressions, which can be perceived by operational managers as meaningless jargon (McDonald 2002). Elaborate systems can often be blamed for over planning. Over planning can create huge amount of data and information, which may not necessarily be needed. This can be de-motivating for all concerned and cause loss of focus to the main issues (McDonald 2002 p85).Show MoreRelatedIntroduction. Coca-Cola Is One Of The Company That Gets1482 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesexample of international Marketing. The term Ã¢â¬Ëinternational marketingÃ¢â¬â¢ is not only based on marketing, but rather more building, and executing a solid marketing plan and actively looking for opportunities to expand a given busin ess by moving to new geographic markets, finding new offerings, and products and services that would fit within your company. No doubt expanding a business to an international market can be very challenging. It is costly to implement, more so when it is done correctly, and sometimesRead MoreInternational Marketing. Submitted By: Zeinab Amin. Submitted1484 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages International Marketing Submitted by: Zeinab Amin Submitted by: Melanie Simmons International Business Northern Alberta Institute of Technology March 12, 2017 Ã¢â¬Æ' Table of Contents INTRODUCTION 3 INTERNATIONAL MARKETING 4 MARKETING PLAN 5 FACTORS EFFECTING INTERNATIONAL MARKETING 6 PEST ANALYSIS 6 POLITICAL 6 ECONOMIC 7 SOCIAL 8 TECHNOLOGICAL 8 INTERNATIONAL MARKETING STRATEGIES 8 EXPORTING 9 LICENSING AND FRANCHISING 9 JOINT VENTURE 10 DIRECT INVESTMENTS 10 CONCLUSION 10 REFERENCES 12 Ã¢â¬Æ' INTRODUCTIONRead MorePlanning Is The Process Of Determining Appropriate Goals And Courses Of Action1401 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesof action. Once a plan has been created the next step is to design a strategy. A strategy is a series or managerial decisions that help managers obtain organizational goals. For most organizations, there are three steps to planning. The first step is the creation of a mission statement. A mission statement is essential for a company to clearly communicate what it does and how it does it with outside investors and people in general. A mission statement is a broad statement of what a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s purposeRead MoreCommunication, Leadership, And Leadership Essay1525 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesLeader is a person who represents his/her workers and motivates them to reach company goals, communication and effective leadership skills play best roles when leaders try to achieve goals. Leader has to deal with number of people on day to day basis such as workers, customers, investors, media people etc. The success of leader depends on communication skills because, if the leader able to create a good communication with employees can accomplish lot more than leader expected (Shukla, 2011) 3.2.Read MoreNikes Market Audit2227 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesTASK 2 a) Ã¢â¬ËMarketing AuditÃ¢â¬â¢ as a crucial factor The marketing audit is a fundamental part of the marketing planning process. It is conducted not only at the beginning of the process, but also at a series of points during the implementation of the plan. The marketing audit considers both internal and external influences on marketing planning, as well as a review of the plan itself. Marketing Audit considers the basics of the marketing audit, and introduces a marketing audit checklist. The checklistRead MoreAnalysis of City View2013 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pagesof its business process since opening in 1975. In order to remain competitive City View needs to be brought the 21st century. The report aim of this report is to understand the impact that information systems can have on City View. It will give suggestions on ways that information systems can be used to improve the business. As well as how to incorporate new technologies into their business activities to improve efficiency and effectiveness and influence the competitiveness of the organisation. 1Read More Information System Essay2979 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pagesadvances rapidly the main issue is how can an organization should effectively use such an information system - which its management sometimes can be unpredictable - in order to effectively help the whole organization structure to improve and take the most out of it. This report will try to analyze intranet and its impact on the use of information in organizations, as well as what actions an organization might take to make the most effective use of it. 2. What is intranet? A lot of definitions haveRead MoreTesco Strategic Marketing1918 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesntroductionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..2 Strategic Marketing PlanningÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..4 The Case of TESCO and ASDAÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...7 ConclusionÃ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...9 Analyzing the Competition Introduction The ability of a business to stay in the industry is one measure of the business success. This means that being able to survive is a necessity and survival translates to the ability of a business to compete. Since 1980s, marketing strategies have played keyRead MoreSituation Analysis And Objectives Of Bmo2059 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pagesstrive to make complex banking understandable, influencing and optimizing personal wealth for every Canadian Defence Community Member. Overall BMO has a small footprint of loyal military customers in bases throughout Canada. Similar market share results can be found in both Petawawa and Trenton markets. Constant but slow growth has been achieved in recent years. Increased competition continues from a variety of sources including other financial institutions and non-traditional banking service providersRead MoreE-Business Globalization on Columbia Records Business Strategy5336 Words Ã |Ã 22 Pagesadvancements. One of the fallacies of people is that you can only do e-business through the Internet. Conversely, that is just a part of this seemingly clear-cut novelty. E- Business is the complex fusion of business processes, enterprise applications, and organizational structure necessary to create a high-performance business model. E-business is needed in today s market just to contend with the growing battle towards profitability. Companies can both buy and sell products on line. Similar business
Friday, December 27, 2019
The government have been implementing policies in the improvement of the growth in the UK. Such as improving economic growth during the Great Depression. A brief history by (Pettinger, 2016) on the use of fiscal policy, Keynes promoted the use of fiscal policy as way of boosting growth. Moreover, during 1970-1980s the government switched to using monetary policy in influencing the economy. However, the government later reverted to using the fiscal policy in the recession of 2008-2013. Whether or not fiscal policy is the key policy in the improvement of economic growth is the issue. Therefore, starting off by defining economic growth and the current statistics of growth will help evaluate the use of fiscal policy. According to (Parkin, Powell and Matthews, 2014) Economic Growth is defined as a sustained expansion of production possibilities measured as the increase in real GDP over a period of time. Achieving economic growth depends on the government fulling one of its macroeconomic objectives among them is stable economic growth, low levels of inflation, low levels unemployment, and adequate levels of balance of payments. UKÃ¢â¬â¢s economic growth fluctuates significantly year to year as mentioned by (Fyfe and Threadgould, 2013, p.1) Ã¢â¬Å"The trend rate of economic growth of the UK economy has been assumed for several years to be between 2.5% and 2.75% per yearÃ¢â¬ . The fluctuations can be seen in Figure 1 shows detail changes in economic growth. The Ã¢â¬Å"Credit CrunchÃ¢â¬ , from mid-2007 toShow MoreRelatedEconomic Growth During The Great Depression And The Recent Financial Crisis1562 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe government has been implementing policies in the improvement of the grow th in the UK. Such as improving economic growth during the Great Depression and the recent financial crisis. A brief history by (Pettinger, 2016) on the use of fiscal policy, Keynes promoted the use of fiscal policy as a way of boosting growth. Moreover, during 1970-1980s the government switched to using monetary policy in influencing the economy. However, the government later reverted to using the fiscal policy in the recessionRead MoreThe Rise Of The Great Depression1407 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s economy was experiencing economic prosperity, growth, and success in the 1920s until October 1929Ã¢â¬âwhen reality struck Americans with a collapsing stock market. The confidence of Americans in an unfailing business system suddenly deteriorated and caused many to terminate involvement in any type of investment, business, or banking activity. This event and other factors contributed to the prevalence of the Great Depression. During this period of an economic recession, mos t Americans were affectedRead MoreThe Great Depression Of The 1930 S1476 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthe great depression of the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s and the great recession in the United State of America. First, IÃ¢â¬â¢ll make a general overview of each of these two different periods and then focus on certain specific aspects during these different times. This will include the causes to the economic recessions witnessed, impacts of the economic recessions and the solutions that were introduced. When talking about any topic regarding American history, it would be hard not to mention the 1930Ã¢â¬â¢s great depression. AuthorsRead MoreKeynesian Theory During The Great Depression949 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesSince the establishment of the Keynesian theory during the Great Depression, there was a continuous rivalry between Keynesians and monetarists. The ongoing debate was about which model can most accurately and correctly explain economic instability and which theory provides the best suggestions on how to achieve constant and steady economic growth. There are fundamental differences in these two approaches, for example over the usefulness of government intervention through fiscal policies, monetaryRead MoreThe Great Depression Of America1727 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Great Depression in America is often believed to have ended when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbour and the US entered WWII in December 1941. However, while an exact end date is a matter of debate, itÃ¢â¬â¢s obvi ous the end of the Great Depression correlates somewhat with the beginning of the war, leading many to believe WWII must have ended the Great Depression and triggered the economic recovery of the United States. Many historians believe that the government and military spending restimulatedRead MoreThe Great Depression Shaped Economic Theory, Social Life, And People s View Of A Market Economy1157 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe Great Depression shaped economic theory, social life, and peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s view of a market economy in general. The capitalist economic system seemed to be on the verge of collapse. Something drastic needed to be done in order to get society out of the depression. In his famous book, The General Theory of Employment, Interest and Money, Keyes attempted to show how economics and the market functioned and he proposed different approaches to creating government policy to guide the economy post war. Read MoreMacroeconomic Theories Of Macroeconomics And Classical Econom ics999 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMacroeconomics is a branch of economics dealing with the performance, structure, behavior, and decision-making of an economy as a whole, rather than individual markets. This includes national, regional, and global economies. With microeconomics, macroeconomics is one of the two most general fields in economics. There are two major macroeconomic theories that economists use to describe the economy. Those theories are Keynesian and Classical. Each theory has a different approach to the economic study of monetaryRead MoreThe Role of Government in Economy1216 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesessay discusses the role of government by analyzing both thought of Keynes and Friedman and then prove the effectiveness of FriedmanÃ¢â¬â¢s theory with historical examples. Firstly, the Great Depression of the 1930s has helped prove the importance of governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s intervention on the economy in the past. The Great Depression started with a decrease in stock prices in America and then quickly spread to most parts of the world (McElvaine, 1993, p 59). There was a tremendous decrease on the demand and globalRead MoreEconomic Prosperity : George Washington s Farewell Address1660 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesEsha Parikh Blanchard APUSH 2 16 January 2015 Economic Prosperity: 1898-1945: Prior to the 1890Ã¢â¬â¢s, the United States followed a foreign policy of seclusion to worldly matters. This idea stemming from George WashingtonÃ¢â¬â¢s Farewell Address to Ã¢â¬Å"avoid entangling alliancesÃ¢â¬ became the foundation for American seclusion and detachment, a policy which resulted in this country being able to overcome tremendous internal difficulties facing the rising, fast-changing state of America. The Manifest Destiny enlargedRead MoreTaking a Look at the 1920s1642 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesassociated with industrial electrification, made possible by mass production. In this period there was a rapid increase in both productivity, expanding the supply of industrial products with reduced prices, and a rapid increase in demand due to the growth of income and new credit facilities. The U.S. became the first country to mass consumption. The increased demand for products such as automobiles and radios stimulated the demand for gasoline, paints, solvents, chemicals, metallurgical products
Thursday, December 19, 2019
I. Social problems are those that raise a questionable suspense to issues that impact societies congruent to cultural normalization. The social issue researched will be homelessness and the impact along society. Homelessness is a social concern that raises issues for government officials, communities, and people along the community in so many ways. Every town or city is impacted by this liaison. In 2012 The Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) calculated an estimate of at least 700,000 people enlisted as homeless in America. This has been an issue for centuries and is an everlasting effect that I feel will never change. What has to be accomplished, or better yet interpreted is, how communities can work together or come upÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦These people generally sleep anywhere out in the community without a stable environment. They may live in abandoned buildings, outside of buildings, park benches building homes in woods, or any place that they feel safe an d secure until the morning when they can get back along basics of the continuation of finding means of particular survival. B. Federal definition and Government Statistics: The federal definition and government statistics of the homeless fall under the aspects of the three categories defined also as Ã¢â¬Å"people who fall under the form of non-stable nighttime housing and result to form of living in shelters, hotels, motels, or other familiesÃ¢â¬ . This creates more social issue because it causes the effect of bigger households, a more unstable income, and enough income which effect to having families to result in more financial help from the state. For every M.N-3 family that has to live in these types of situations they have to build support. This means applying for more government benefits like Food stamps (SNAP Programs), WIC programs, and Cash assistance programing. Programs like these are much suited for the people in many different categories. Each of these takes a toll on the government, developing and building a stronger loop hole of poor communities. The homeless community is formed by many contributing factors in theShow MoreRelatedHealth Issues Among The Homeless Population1450 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesAbstract The purpose of this paper is to discuss current health issues among the homeless population. The paper will also explore the reasons behind homelessness and the societyÃ¢â¬â¢s perception. According to the National Coalition for the Homeless an individual experiencing homelessness fall into one of the three categories such as, chronic, transitional or episodic homelessness. Medicine or treatment for homeless individuals seeking medical attention, are not as accessible compared to non-homelessRead MoreA Vulnerable Population: The Homeless in America919 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesVulnerable Population: The Homeless in America Introduction Homelessness in America should be a growing concern. When discussing the United States current economic crisis comparisons with the Great Depression are becoming more and more common. Tent cities or makeshift shelters in specified areas or just beyond city limits are becoming familiar sites across the country. Each of these cities contains dozens if not hundreds of families struggling to just survive (Maide, 2010). Homelessness can beRead MoreResearch Development For Hope For Homeless1718 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPursuit of Happiness. Yet, the very nation once inspired by his writing has not committed to these ideas. With such a shockingly large homeless population one should assume these ideas have been abandoned by the society. Commonly homelessness in America is traced back briefly, interpreted as a mostly modern issue. However, difficulties with homelessness can be credited much further to the 1640s. At this time an inability to support oneself was seen as a moral issue, and as due justice for religiousRead MoreHomeless in The United States 1309 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHomelessness is a problem that happens in many different countries around the world. Definitions of homelessness are defined in different meanings by different people. However, the Stewart B. McKinney Act defines a homeless person as Ã¢â¬Å" one who lacks a fixed permanent nighttime residence or whose nighttime residence is a temporary shelter, welfare hotel, or any public or private place not designed as sleeping accommodations for human beingsÃ¢â¬ (McNamara 1025). It is impossible to find out exactly theRead MoreHomelessness : Poverty And Lack Of Permanent And Stable Housing1244 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHomelessness is the situation where individuals lack safe and adequate housing resulting in sleeping in the streets, their cars, and family or friends homes or in shelters. According to the United States Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), a homeless person is an individual who does not a have a permanent residence place, but rather has a temporary nighttime residence which is not designed for the accommodation of human beings (National Health Care for the Homeless Council, n.d.) SuchRead MoreIndian Joe, Lightfoot Gonzales, And Narisco Allalha1563 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesfound their way to the Americas the countries were populated by indigenous people native to the landscapes. Each indigenous tribe had their own traditions, language and hierarchy. It is difficult to discern the exact population numbers of indigenous people before their exposure to Europeans in 1492; however, scholars estimate their numbers at roughly 37 million. By 1650, their population had dwindled to an estimated 9 million individual s, a decrease of 90%. In North America there are currently 562Read MoreHomelessness : An Epidemic Across The United States1066 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesHomelessness has become an epidemic across the United States of America over the past 40 years. Despite the fact that most individuals are reminded of this problem on a daily basis when they see those without homes on the street, few solutions have been implemented that would fix the causes of this horrendous issue. Funding for programs that assist the homeless and homeless prevention programs is abysmal, while the costs incurred due to such a large homeless population continue to rise. Over theRead MoreNegative Effects Of Homelessness1446 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMany people tend to want to ask themselves the question, Ã¢â¬Å"Does homelessness affect me at all?Ã¢â¬ Typically, if homelessness isnÃ¢â¬â¢t affecting a certain individual or anyone that theyÃ¢â¬â¢re close to, they tend to not want to help. From previous research done by Pergantis, Tolliver, Bishop, 2016, it is a known fact that about 578,242 people in America are considered to be homeless. People who were homeless back then done by were considered as disconnected from the world and they have also encountered psychologicalRead MoreThe Serious Issues of Poverty and Homelessness in the US1313 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesPoverty and homelessness are serious issues in the U.S. today, especially because of the current recession, with levels of poverty and unemployment higher than at any time since the 1930s. Blacks and Hispanics are being affected disproportionately by homelessness, as well as poverty and unemployment in American society. This is just another example of the racial caste system and institutional racism that goes far beyond that of social class, and has always been the case in recessions and indeed withRead MoreFive Myths About America1082 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesout America Five myths about America s homeless By Dennis Culhane Sunday, July 11, 2010 Last month, the Obama administration released a plan designed to end homelessness in 10 years. The goal reflects new optimism among academics and advocates that homelessness is not an intractable feature of urban life, as it has sometimes seemed, but a problem that can be solved. This belief is fueled by recent research debunking a number of long-standing myths about homelessness in America -- and showing